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The word ‘COP’ is an acronym for ‘Conference of the Parties’. The 'parties' are the governments around the world that have signed the UN Framework Convention of Climate Change (UNFCCC)  - a treaty agreed in 1994. 
Since many believe that the COP26 summit is the world's last chance to bring climate change under control, such signatory governments hold conferences once a year to accelerate action towards the goals of the Paris Agreement and discuss efforts to jointly address climate change through collaboration between governments, civil societies and businesses.
Every year, the COP is hosted by a different nation and the first such COP meeting – ‘COP1’ – took place in Germany in 1995. 
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