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Central welfare schemes, implemented by the government to provide financial and other aids to individuals who cannot support themselves, can be categorised into two sections — centrally sponsored schemes and central sector schemes.
Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS) are those schemes which are implemented by the state government but sponsored by the central government with a defined shareholding. At present, there are 30 centrally-sponsored schemes but these are umbrella programmes and they have many sub-schemes under them. The funding is borne by the states in the ratio of 50:50 or 90:10 or 75:25 or 70:30.
These schemes are aimed at supplementing efforts undertaken by the state government because the central government has more resources at its disposal. These schemes can either be national or regional in character. In CSS, the funding by the central government works as an initiation, with further spending coming from states towards the cause.
What is the difference between central sector schemes and centrally sponsored schemes?
Central sector schemes are implemented by the central government and the budget or financing needed for the scheme is entirely sourced by the central government. By comparison, the implementation of a centrally sponsored scheme is done by state governments. For example, the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Generation Scheme is a centrally sponsored scheme, while the National Rural Health Mission is a central sector scheme.
Centrally sponsored schemes can be further divided into two sections — core of core schemes and core schemes. Green Revolution, White Revolution, Blue Revolution, Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana, Pradhan Manti Awas Yojana, Swachh Bharat Mission, Mid-day meals in schools and National Livelihood Mission are some core schemes. Core of the core schemes, on the other hand, include the umbrella scheme for development of scheduled castes, umbrella scheme for development of minorities, and the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Generation Scheme. Core of core schemes are implemented for social inclusion and social protection, and they are fully funded by the central government.